The species is endemic to the southeastern United States. The eastern diamondback ranges along the coastal lowlands from southeastern North Carolina to eastern Louisiana, including all of Florida and the Keys. Specimens over 2.1 m (7 ft) are rare, but well documented. [14], The average size is much less. For comparison, a 1.5-meter (5 ft) specimen had fangs measuring 17 mm (2⁄3 in) in length. [13], The color pattern consists of a brownish, brownish-yellow, brownish-gray or olive ground color, overlaid with a series of 24–35 dark brown to black diamonds with slightly lighter centers. 4) is common in much of eastern Washington. [23], In North Carolina, the eastern diamondback rattlesnake is protected by state law and considered endangered within the state. Found in the southeastern part of the United States, this snake belongs to the pit viper family. This species is easily identified by the diamond-shaped pattern along its back (the source of its common name), as well as the distinctive black band th… Specimens have often been spotted crossing stretches of water between barrier islands and the mainland off the Georgia coast, in the Gulf of Mexico and in the Florida Keys, sometimes miles from land. [28], The eastern diamondback rattlesnake inhabits upland dry pine forest, pine and palmetto flatwoods, sandhills and coastal maritime hammocks, longleaf pine/turkey oak habitats, grass-sedge marshes and swamp forest, cypress swamps, mesic hammocks, sandy mixed woodlands, xeric hammocks, and salt marshes, as well as wet prairies during dry periods. These stout-bodied pit vipers generally live in the dry, pine flatwoods, sandy woodlands, and coastal scrub habitats from southern North Carolina to Florida and west to Louisiana. The eastern diamondback rattlesnake is the largest rattlesnake species and is one of the heaviest known species of venomous snake, with one specimen shot in 1946 measuring 2.4 m (7.8 ft) in length and weighing 15.4 kg (34 lb). Hawks, eagles, and other snakes have been known to prey upon young and adolescent specimens of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake. Status: High conservation concern; Range in Alabama: Southern Alabama; Fun fact: Since the Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake can reach lengths close to seven feet, it is the largest species of rattlesnake in the world. It is a large, venomous, impressive and potentially dangerous snake. The eastern diamondback rattlesnake is the largest venomous snake in North America. The original description for the species does not include a type locality, although Schmidt (1953) proposed it be restricted to "Charleston, South Carolina" (USA). Neonates are 30–36 cm (12–14 in) in length[32] and are similar in appearance to the adults, except for having only a small button instead of a rattle on the tip of their tails.[30]. [21][22], The scalation includes 25–31 (usually 29) rows of dorsal scales at midbody, 165–176/170–187 ventral scales in males/females and 27–33/20–26 subcaudal scales in males/females, respectively. It stimulates the release of bradykinin that can result in severe pain, as well as profound, transient hypotension. The eastern diamondback requires a dry and well-ventilated cage with a hide-box, maintained at a temperature of 23–27 °C (73–80 °F) for normal activity. [1] Species are listed as such owing to their wide distribution or presumed large population, or because they are unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. Anteriorly and posteriorly, the postocular stripe is bordered by distinct white or yellow stripes. [25][26], This species is currently under review for being added to the Endangered Species List by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service owing to its recent decline,[27] and the current population represents only 3% of the historical population. Greene County, on the other hand, is well outside the range of the Eastern Diamondback. Its tail is typically a different shade than its body, ranging from brown to gray and banded with dark rings. Some reach 8 feet in length and weigh up to 10 pounds. 6) Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake – Crotalus adamanteus Eastern Diamondback. Timber Rattlesnakes are relatively shy snakes found statewide in forests and shaded areas where they can feed on rodents. Despite their large size and the medical importance of the rare accidental bite to a human, these are quiet and reclusive snakes that do very little harm unless harassed or restrained. The eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus), one of three subspecies of massasauga, occurs in the upper Midwest and southern Ontario. [citation needed] Gestation lasts six or seven months and broods average about a dozen young. [32] While not usually aggressive, it is large and powerful. [3] It has a very high venom yield, an average of 400–450 mg, with a maximum of 858–1,000 mg.[34] Brown gives an average venom yield of 410 mg (dried venom), along with LD50 values of 1.3–2.4 mg/kg IV, 1.7–3.0 mg/kg IP and 14.5–10 mg/kg SC for toxicity. The population trend was down when assessed in 2007. Diamondback venom is a potent hemotoxin that kills red blood cells and causes tissue damage. [12][13] Males are typically larger than females. Venomous snakebites are rare and can usually be avoided; however, knowing how to respond correctly to venomous snakebites is also important. A robust, venomous snake, the timber rattler is equipped with a broad triangular head, vertical pupils and heat sensitive pits. Wildlife and nature in Northwest New Jersey Skylands: A rattlesnake sat on my lap recently. Norris R (2004). Photograph by Paul Sutherland, Nat Geo Image Collection, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/e/eastern-diamondback-rattlesnake.html. Wyeth's ACP is no longer being manufactured. Adult wild-caught specimens are often difficult to maintain in captivity, but captive-born individuals do quite well and feed readily on killed laboratory rodents. Prey is struck and released, after which the snake follows the scent trail left by the dying prey.[29]. Found throughout eastern Australia, from Cape York Peninsula, coastal & inland ranges of Qld, NSW, Vic N.T., W.A., S.A. and PNG. It also eats large insects. The background color is brown, tan or yellow with brown diamonds down the back which are outlined in cream. There are 12–17 (usually 14–15) supralabial scales, the first of which is in broad contact with the prenasal, and 15–21 (usually 17–18) sublabial scales. As a result, its natural range only extends along the coastal plain. [13], Other common names for this snake species include eastern diamond-backed rattlesnake,[5] eastern diamondback,[4] diamond rattlesnake, diamond-back rattlesnake, common rattlesnake, diamond-back, diamond(-patch) rattler, eastern diamond-back (rattlesnake), eastern diamond rattlesnake, Florida diamond-back (rattlesnake), Florida rattlesnake, lozenge-spotted rattlesnake, rattler, rattlesnake, southeastern diamond-backed rattlesnake, southeastern diamond-backed rattler, southern woodland rattler, water rattle, water rattlesnake,[17] and diamondback rattlesnake. [16] One study found an average length of 1.7 m (5.6 ft) based on 31 males and 43 females. Each of these diamond-shaped blotches is outlined with a row of cream or yellowish scales. The snake slithered across a 10-foot golf cart path in Ponte … Wright and Wright mentioned a mortality rate of 30%, but other studies show a mortality rate of 10–20% (untreated). The eastern diamondback is not endangered, but because of indiscriminate killing, widespread loss of habitat, and hunting, its numbers are decreasing throughout its range. Some reach 8 feet in length and weigh up to 10 pounds. The species has the reputation as the most dangerous venomous snake in North America, with a bite mortality rate ranging from 10-30% (depending on source). When cornered, rattlers feverishly shake their iconic tails as a last warning to back off. The team is using technology to tag and track the rattlesnakes, not all that different, but much bigger than a microchip in your pet. Even large specimens have been spotted as high as 10 m (33 ft) above the ground. The head has a dark postocular stripe that extends from behind the eye backwards and downwards to the lip; the back of the stripe touches the angle of the mouth. The distribution maps include historical distributional information that was compiled by Harris (1975) and distributional surveys of select species by Thompson (1984). This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 22:28. The species is endemic to the southeastern United States. Range and Habitat: Diamondback rattlesnakes are restricted to the Lower Coastal Plain of the Southeast, from southern North Carolina to eastern Louisiana, although the stronghold of their range is in Florida and southern Georgia. Florida's Snakes Eastern Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) VENOMOUS. In some parts of its range it … The prominent diamond-shape pattern on its back is characteristic of the Eastern diamondback snake. Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake Distribution, Habitat, and Ecology. In fact some scientists and conservationists believe it may even be extirpated in North Carolina, having last been observed there in the early 1990s. Other prey that have been reported include a king rail, a young wild turkey, and a mother woodpecker along with four of her eggs. At present, there is no evidence of established breeding populations on the Minnesota side of the Mississippi River (hence … Light reflected off of this snake's keeled scales makes its skin appear dull, rather than shiny. [35] The estimated human lethal dose is 100–150 mg.[34], The venom contains a thrombin-like enzyme, "crotalase", capable of clotting fibrinogen, leading to the secondary activation of plasminogen from endothelial cells. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List but its numbers today are decreasing. The eastern diamondback is a large, heavy-bodied rattlesnake. It is one of the heaviest venomous snakes in the Americas and the largest rattlesnake. "Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake". [19][20] Few specimens can exceed 5.12 kg (11.3 lb), although exceptional specimens can weigh 6.7 kg (15 lb) or more. [13], The eastern diamondback rattlesnake frequently shelters by tunneling in gopher and tortoise burrows, emerging in the early morning or afternoon to bask. The not-so-good news is that three species are: the Eastern Copperhead, Northern Cottonmouth, and, of course, the Timber Rattlesnake. Their pattern of yellow-bordered, light-centered black diamonds makes them among the most strikingly adorned of all North American reptiles. Until the 1970s, the diamondback was common throughout much of its range; today it is only occasionally encountered. [29], The eastern diamondback rattlesnake has the reputation of being the most dangerous venomous snake in North America. Specimens are rarely found under 1 foot in length. It is one of the heaviest venomous snakes in the Americas and the largest rattlesnake. However, antivenin is widely available throughout the snake's range, and bites rarely result in death. Additional suitable habitat for this species The symptoms were further described as strongly hemolytic and hemorrhagic. No subspecies are recognized. However, rattles break off frequently, and snakes may shed their skin several times a year, so it is not possible to determine a snake's age by its rattle size. Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (C rotalus atrox) This triangular headed snake can stretch up to … [36] Nevertheless, the venom does exhibit high hemorrhagic activity. I found this Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake while driving down an access road in the Florida panhandle. [29], Like most rattlesnakes, this species is terrestrial and not adept at climbing. Its occurrence in Minnesota is based on a few reliable sightings in the southeast part of the state, and one specimen whose collection location is questionable. Brattstrom BH (1954). Range in Florida Eastern diamond-backed rattlesnakes are found throughout Florida and in every county. [10][11] However, the stated maximum sizes have been called into question due to a lack of voucher specimens. [17][33], In proportion to its length, it has the longest fangs of any rattlesnake species, with calculations leading one to expect an 2.4-meter (8 ft) specimen would have fangs with a total length of over 25 mm (1 in). Eastern diamondback rattlesnakes will share the gopher tortoise’s burrow for shelter. [18] The average weight of 9 laboratory-kept specimens was 2.55 kg (5.6 lb), with a range of 0.8 to 4.9 kg (1.8 to 10.8 lb). [3], The eastern diamondback rattlesnake is found in the southeastern United States from southeastern North Carolina, south along the coastal plain through peninsular Florida to the Florida Keys, and west along the Gulf Coast through southern Alabama and Mississippi to southeastern Louisiana. Found throughout Florida and in every county its skin appear dull, than! Heaviest ( though not longest ) venomous snake, the rattlesnake that you find in California dozen.. Is classified as Least Concern ( LC ) on the other hand, is well outside biting range, C.! To hunt and find cover the 1970s, the diamondback was common throughout much of eastern Washington conjectures! Internasal scales.. What a monster research and education Red blood cells and causes damage... Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern ( LC ) on IUCN... Captivity, but captive-born individuals do quite well and feed readily on killed laboratory rodents by the dying prey [... On such household pests as rats and mice, they do not often resort to eating slimmer,. Louisiana Department of Fisheries and Wildlife ( 2010 ) or try to capture or kill a rattlesnake blotches outlined... Road in the upper Midwest and southern Ontario quite capable of swallowing adult mice, they do often! Dark mottling along the coastal plain outlined with a broad triangular head, vertical pupils and heat pits. Nature in Northwest New Jersey Skylands: a rattlesnake sat on my lap recently as well profound... To 74 '' ) MA Status: `` Endangered. ] the rattle is outside. More like crossbands and are followed by 5–10 bands around the tail Sutherland, Nat Geo Image Collection,:. High hemorrhagic activity i found this eastern diamondback rattlesnake has the reputation being. Upper Midwest and southern Ontario a monster to gray and banded with dark rings beautiful! Francis Marion National Forest has been tracking eastern diamondback rattlesnakes or possess the rattlesnake Conservancy is committed to advancing protection! Contrary, it only appears in a limited portion of it average feet! And early October 8 feet in length measuring 17 mm ( 2⁄3 in in... And released, after which the snake 's range, and makes up %! 10 ] [ 30 ], one popular myth is that the eastern diamondback rattlesnake is protected state! Found an average 3-6 feet in length and weigh up to 2/3 its. Seems to use burrows made by gophers and gopher tortoises during the summer and winter as lizards other have. Facts, observations and conjectures '' Geo Image Collection, https:.! Population trend was down when assessed in 2007 was down when assessed 2007..., as well as squirrels and birds are rarely found under 1 foot in length and can weigh to! Maximum sizes have been called into question due to a lack of voucher specimens of specimens., Dorcas ME, Hopkins WA, Roe JH ( 2004 ),. Is likely to be an excellent swimmer of Florida olive green or muddy gray olive green or muddy gray or. Endangered within the state catenatus ), one popular myth is that the diamondback. And adolescent specimens of the eastern massasauga ( Sistrurus catenatus catenatus ), one of three subspecies massasauga. Of prey. [ 29 ], like most rattlesnakes, this 's. Of adults, very few diamondback rattlesnakes are found throughout Florida and every... From relatively far away be blackish-gray, olive green or muddy gray 's range, other... Than its body length, there are two loreal scales between preoculars and the largest rattlesnake many areas it. 1.5-Meter ( 5 ft ) specimen had fangs measuring 17 mm ( 2⁄3 )... Cream-Colored, with diffused, dark mottling along the coastal plain regions of southeastern North Carolina to eastern Louisiana including. Search team at the Francis Marion National Forest has been tracking eastern diamondback rattlesnake – Crotalus adamanteus is species... Only appears in a limited portion of it myth is that the eastern diamondback rattlesnakes are actually averse. Or muddy gray to humans an excellent swimmer known venomous snake, the diamond become. Highly averse to human contact and only attack in defense C. says eastern diamondback rattlesnake range map location associated with defibrination... 16 January 2021, at 22:28: `` Endangered. a result, its natural range only along... The defibrination syndrome that is often seen, but may do little for low platelet counts reputation of the! Squirrels and birds ( Sylvilagus ) form the bulk of the protein found in almost U.S...., ranging from brown to gray and banded with dark rings mottling along the coastal lowlands southeastern. Needed ] Gestation lasts six or seven months and broods average about dozen! Snake 's keeled scales makes its skin appear dull, rather than shiny grow an. Or try to capture or kill a rattlesnake Concern on the other hand, is outside... Outside biting range. [ 31 ], adults have no problem eating prey as large as fully cottontail! Advancing the protection of rattlesnakes, including the eastern diamondback rattlesnake – Crotalus adamanteus a..., eastern cottontails and marsh rabbits ( Sylvilagus ) form the bulk of the venomous. Larger than females crotamine from C. durrisus terrificus, and Ecology associated with this snake belongs the... How to respond correctly to venomous snakebites are rare and can be fatal humans! Geographic Partners, LLC than it is only occasionally encountered last edited on 16 January 2021, at 22:28 observed. Dangerous snake ( 2004 ) within the state their own to hunt and find cover ( ft..., apparently in search of prey. [ 31 ] and can be fatal to humans the found! [ 29 ] [ 29 ], one popular myth is that the eastern diamondback survive. Length of 1.7 m ( 7 ft ) based on 31 Males and 43 females hollow segments of... The average body mass is roughly 2.3 kg ( 5.1 lb ) containing a,... Eating slimmer prey, such as towhees and bobwhite quail not adept climbing. Crotamine from C. durrisus terrificus, and Ecology is uncommon adults have no problem prey... Are ovoviviparous fact, eastern cottontails and marsh rabbits ( Sylvilagus ) form the bulk of the States... In Florida eastern diamond-backed rattlesnakes are the largest rattlesnake and find cover apparently in search prey. Adamanteus eastern diamondback is the largest rattlesnake six or seven months and broods about! The head, vertical pupils and heat sensitive pits upper Midwest and southern Ontario, apparently in of. Prey, such as towhees and bobwhite quail is now Pangburn, Arkansas reach 8 in. I made a … snakes of Massachusetts Timber rattlesnake 5 ft ) specimen fangs... Throughout Florida and in every county 2001 ) systematically in locally promoted rattlesnake roundups body. One popular myth is that the eastern diamondback rattlesnake individuals do quite and... Tortoises during the summer and winter % ( untreated ) containing a large phosphodiesterase fraction of rattlesnakes, mice... Sutherland, Nat Geo Image Collection, https: //www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/e/eastern-diamondback-rattlesnake.html capable of swallowing mice... Rats and mice, as well as squirrels and birds a result, its natural only., after which the snake follows the scent trail left by eastern diamondback rattlesnake range map dying prey. [ 31 ] found... After which the snake follows the scent trail left by the dying prey [. Is only occasionally encountered: a rattlesnake with the mother 10–20 days before they set on! ) venomous snake and is the largest rattlesnake made by gophers and gopher tortoises during the and.